The Theory is based on the principle of supremacy of the state as embodied In the authorities. Under an Authoritarian approach in Western Europe, freedom of thought was jealously guarded by a few people ruling classes , who were concerned with the emergence of a new middle class and were worried about the effects of printed matter on their thought process. For example when we speak of normative theory we refer to the ideas of rights and expectations of benefit from the media to individuals and society. An example is Joy fm which is owned by Multimedia Broadcasting Company, it broadcast freely, giving to its target audience the things to meet their needs. Engel, a German thinker further reinforced the theory by stating that freedom came into its supreme right only under Authoritarianism.
The rise in of libertarian ideas especially in the 17th Century also contributed. They also justify the process as to preserve social order and harmony but minority views are not censored unless the authorities do not take it as a threat to their power. But again, a television station like G T V will not do that because they know they owe society a responsibility. According to Larin the trust of the democratic participant media theory lies in the insistence that the existing bureaucracy as well as commercial and professional hegemony in media system be broken down. The authorities control media by providing rights and license to some media and not to some. Sometimes, the liberty of having this freedom led for some to abuse it and use it in several negative purposes and intentions.
The media also covers up on the negative things that happen under the communist leadership, not revealing the dangers and hardships North Koreans faced. Burmese media was also made to follow authoritarianism till 2011. The emphasis on personal freedom and democracy also helped greatly for this theory to come. We are supposed to have the freedom but we should use it responsibly. Libertarian advocates, argue that the mass media can promote wide variety of opinions without government intervention through regulation or other censorship. The Social Responsibility Media Theory This theory was propounded by F.
Kwadwo Boateng, Lecturer, Mass Communication, Ghana Institute of Journalism. It also established that the state in the interest of development ends has a right to intervene in, or restrict media operation; devices and direct control can be justified. Mass media are to do what is best for the state and party; and what is best determined by the elite leadership of State and Party. Many steps are taken to curb the freedom of press like licensing, censorships,approval of content prior to publication and punishments etc. The media misused the word freedom.
Thus, the theory is justified by saying that state is greater than individual rights where state controls the media, especially in the time of emergencies like wars and conflicts. Sensitive issues are mostly not published or are published through press releases. It calls for greater attention to the needs, interests and aspirations of the receiver in a political society- the individual right to communication is defended. Osu,Accra, Greater Accra, Ghana Desmond is a very humble, caring,loving,interesting but determined young man who is very careful in life. Kings used this approach in the past by granting royal charters and licenses.
Long term use of its use can also build to resentment and a feeling of festering, whereby those team members are never given a chance to grow, proceeding to the feeling of being undervalued and distrusted. The whole part of Western Europe used this approach to control the middle class from starting a revolution after printing press was started. People should also be free to receive the media of their choice. Ghana Journalists Association Code of Ethics T. Also, the press theory assumes that an individual should be free to publish whatever he or she likes. As a matte of fact, the media was an arm of government and is directly under government control.
In this kine of this the soviet-communist theory had no profit motive, advertising not accepted and every issue is interpreted from communist party standpoint which are thus: that media should support progressive movement of the state, ideas and aims of the media should concide with the best interest of the state, the media should present complete and objective view of the state and their society to the world in line with Marxist-Leninist principles. This theory, propounded by McQuail as a result of his dissatisfaction with the libertarian and social responsibility theories, frowns upon the professional and bureaucratic control of the mass media, and encourages the operation of mass communication channels by local organisations and communities. The four theories are: The Authoritarian Theory, The Libertarian Theory, Soviet-Communist Theory, and Social-Responsibility Theory. Yet, under this theory the media had two dimensions, within are to change the moral and ethical thinking of the population as well as rousing the population to contribute to the economic goals of the state. They report on issues without checking and double checking, feeding the society with anything.
Media who published against the government were punished and imprisoned. . Lownstein added under his theory ,that the mass media are instruments of the government and integral parts of the slate. For instance, when there are issues for development to be discussed, one newspaper was reporting on the fact that, the former president of Ghana, Jerry John Rawlings has been given a stolen goat. There is no such term as repression of the press in this system, for the press is the state. Rulers in particular are ready to pay anything from say, an year's anticipated profit of a highly circulated newspaper.
The second dimension was to rouse the population to contribute to the economic goals of the state. Advertising in the Soviet-communist media was rare. Schramm in the year 1963; it dates back to the 17th century and was relabeled free press theory by McQuail in 1987. Libertarian theory gives room for the freedom of the press even in cases of subversive writings which might lead to the overthrow of a government. The media in Ghana is allowed to report and express freely. Ghana Broadcasting Corporation as a media house do not just bring out any story to tarnish people images or broadcast a anything against the cultural behaviours of our society. Since the earliest times, the control of leaders which led to the oppression of the people has been demonstrated.