While Gandhi was in jail, the First Round Table Conference was held in London in November 1930 without any representation of the Indian National Congress. Every day, more and more people joined the march, until the procession of marchers became at least two miles long. This call to arms was perhaps the most remarkable call to war that has ever been made. The programs and policies adopted in the movements spearheaded by Gandhi reflected his political ideologies of ahimsa and satyagraha. As we have seen from all the ten examples mentioned above, civil disobedience is certainly an effective tool to fight injustice, for most of the time.
The historic Independence Resolution was adopted and the tri-colour flag of independence was hoisted at the midnight of 31st December 1929. It is mightier than the mightiest weapon of destruction devised by the ingenuity of man. The situation forced the British Government to negotiate with the Congress for a rapprochement. Hence, most of the protestants are trained in advance about what they are to expect, what to do if the police attack, etc. Both Jawaharlal Nehru and Gandhi were put behind bars.
The salt tax represented 8. Even though it succeeded in raising millions of Indians in protest against the British created , violence broke out at , where a mob killed 22 unarmed policemen. Ambedker, the leader of Untouchables in which the Congress met many of the Untouchables' demands, the Communal Award was a blow to Gandhiji and he finally decided to suspend and withdraw mass satyagraha on 14th July, 1933. Meanwhile within the Congress itself young leaders like and Jawaharlal Nehru demanded that their aim was not to fight for dominion status but for complete independence. The British Government encouraged communalism to the maximum extent by giving support to the Muslim League. Walking ten miles a day for 24 days, the march spanned over 240 miles.
History tells us the tales of both kinds of civil disobedience. The main idea behind it was to defy and break the laws made by the British. The Pashtun satyagrahis acted in accord with their training in nonviolence, willingly facing bullets as the troops fired on them. There was extensive reportage in the international media. Please refer to the video for more details. What started as a personal pilgrimage for Mahatma Gandhi's great-grandson turned into an international event with 900 registered participants from 9 nations and on a daily basis the numbers swelled to a couple of thousands. In January, 1931 the second round table conference undertook and meanwhile the congress leaders were released.
Back home, Gandhiji wanted to revive the Civil Disobedience Movement and the Congress ordered for it. The Salt March was also called the White Flowing River because all the people were joining the procession wearing white khadi. Civil disobedience has to be directed against the salt tax or the land tax or some other particular point — not that; that is our final end, but for the time being it is our aim, and we must shoot straight. Only a change brought about in our political condition by pure means can lead to real progress. The talks would lead to the Second at the end of 1931.
While the was built on the lines of non violent non co operation, the essence of The Civil Disobedience Movement was defying of the British laws. Here they signed a pact, which came to be known as the Gandhi-Irwin Pact. Archived from on 30 March 2012. The main point of civil disobedience is not violence, or non-violence. South African leaders frequently used civil disobedience as a method to protest against the unfair governmental rule in the country.
It is also meant to disobey the commands and demands of either a government or international powers which are ruling over the nation. After violating the salt law, the participator of movement followed their programme of non-payment of revenue which further led to involvement of peasants and villagers in the movement. More than three times the number of Satyagrahis went to jail. Gandhi protested against the declaration of Untouchables as a minority and undertook a fast unto death. Peasants refused 'to pay revenue' apart from boycott of foreign cloth and picketing of liquor shops and chaukidari taxes. But Subhas Chandra Bose began to criticise the terms of the pact. However, no Indian was nominated as a member of the commission that resulted in outrage against the All-White commission in India since this action of the British government, which excluded Indians from the Simon Commission, implied that Indians were not fit to decide the next course of constitutional reforms.
Lakhs of people including a large number of women participated actively in these protests. As I delved deeper into the philosophy of Gandhi, my skepticism concerning the power of love gradually diminished, and I came to see for the first time its potency in the area of social reform. At many areas British even face the violent confrontation. Recommended Book for Modern History Last updated on February 2, 2019 4:57 pm Government Response and End of the Civil Disobedience Movement The civil disobedience movement reached its peak by the end first half of 1930. But gradually they joined the Gandhian movement. As a result of a long negotiation, on 5 th March 1931, the Gandhi-Irwin Pact was signed. The Award was not popular with any Indian party.
His group started from , in now part of , to the coastal village of. The Cape Town Peace March of 1989 was organized by both black and white religious leaders for peace, and against apartheid rule. The Congress had no other recourse but to launch the Civil Disobedience Movement. . The Indian National Congress, led by and , publicly issued the Declaration of sovereignty and self-rule, or , on 26 January 1930. All important Congress leaders were arrested, their property was confiscated, the Congress organisation was declared illegal. Gandhi suspended the protest, against the opposition of other Congress members.