At the end, though, you favor one particular candidate because he seems more likable and has a warm, soothing voice. Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly, 76 2 , 341-353. The effectiveness of banner advertisements: Involvement and click-through. You can persuade someone who trusts you by appealing with a convincing argument, backed up with solid facts, accessing emotions. Maybe you skipped lunch and are really hungry, or maybe you just don't find the topic that important.
The first is a straightforward between subjects tests. It is appropriate to use this method for products or services that are generally considered high involvement purchases, and typically, this method requires careful evaluation of a persuasive communication and analysis of its merits by the audience. In the face of a receiver that seems inoculated against persuasive techniques, the use of the above heuristics can potentially supplement previous arguments sufficiently that they are strong enough to result in the goal behavior, purchasing the car. That is, they are less enduring, because the design has only caught their eyes, as opposed to captivating the users on a more intellectual level. There are two basic methods to persuasion based on the polars of the model.
Although the discussion focuses on main effects, the arrows at the top of Figure 1 suggest that there will be interactions among the categories as well. A First Look at Communication Theory, 8th ed. To fully utilize a strong argument in the central route to persuasion, one must first identify the main components that help define the persuaded as a high elaborator. Ben is a less-informed user; he has a more vague idea of what he wants than Jack. Cacioppo, The Elaboration likelihood model of Persuasion.
This advice gives the persuader no more to work with than the suggestion to use arguments that work. Message appeal ratings did not show greater preference for this message type among higher involved versus lower involved students. Furthermore, the effect was about 23% greater for those in the web surfing condition versus the information seeking condition. For example, if a variable e. Ratings from students reporting lower academic achievement suggested difficulty processing factual information presented in these messages. Our discussion of limitations of the model in the first part of this paper should be viewed as suggestions for further development of the model rather than fault-finding.
But, they are not always successful. Internet ads in 2007, a 25 percent increase over 2006. The model aims to explain different ways of processing stimuli, why they are used, and their outcomes on attitude change. Among the latter variables are the knowledge that the message source is attempting to persuade you or a preexisting attitude toward the issue e. This confidence effect only occurred when elaboration was high.
Be the first to comment. These are all things that can influence how we attend to and receive a message. For marketers, a better understanding of these specific circumstances would be very useful to explaining the diversity of consumer behavior and for designing marketing strategies appropriate to varied circumstances. If these peripheral influences go completely unnoticed, the message recipient is likely to maintain their previous attitude towards the message. The elaboration likelihood model of persuasion. The popular train of thought today is that this is a category of its own. An innate enjoyment of thinking can also drive elaboration.
Noticing this problem, Petty and Cacioppo developed the elaboration likelihood model as their attempt to account for the differential persistence of communication-induced attitude change. It was found that, the peripheral cues of the minority were more important than the argument quality. Specific examples of marketing variables that may lead to high or low elaboration likelihood are described below and summarized in Table 1. Having targeted our audience i. Indeed, we would have to incorporate a powerful to assist in , filtering options, and, of course, the good looks of each page we would construct. In traditional television and radio, viewers and listeners are almost forced into watching and hearing advertisements.
Other less conscious affective responses may result from classical conditioning and mere exposure. Julie carefully notes each fact about the appliance, focusing on what it can do and whether she will find it useful. An Experimental Investigation of Internet Advertising and the Elaboration Likelihood Model. Choosing a Route So, when and why do people sometimes pay attention to the facts and other times use mental shortcuts instead? Thus, if one person thinks that an attractive source produces a huge bias, he or she will make a large adjustment to his or her attitude in a direction opposite the perceived bias. As a result, it has broad applications in the fields of advertising and psychology. For many product categories objective differences, even advertising claim differences, are small, and preferences may well result from peripheral effects. Peripheral Route to Persuasion There are other times when people are not motivated by the facts and instead are persuaded by superficial things, such as the attractiveness or fame of the person delivering the message.
Here the situation and the product are proposed as separate influencing variables because of the importance of the product as the primary object to which the consumer is responding. Our subject in the video Courtney demonstrates some situations in which the elaboration likelihood model applies in the everyday life of a student. So while they might have been persuaded by the speaker at that moment, they probably won't stay persuaded for long. Electronic Commerce Research and Applications. Rather they indicate underspecifications of the model that leave important questions as yet unanswered. And what about the information in their talks? Furthermore, sometimes attitude change would last over time and would predict behavior, but sometimes it would not. If the receiver comes from a counterattitudinal stance toward the car, the seller can activate a consensus heuristic by pointing out how many units of the particular car in question have been sold, and the consumer awards it has won.
Does the speaker seem to have a good grasp of the rules of grammar? Though they might not be distracted nor cognitively busy, their insufficiency in knowledge can hinder people's engagement in deep thinking. These criticisms are not due. When elaboration likelihood is high, the favorability of cognitive responses generated in reaction to the ad influences the strength of attitudes. Julie, from the opening example, illustrates central route thinking. Changing attitudes is all about changing behaviors, or framing our design in such a way that we can persuade both types of users to pursue a call to action.