Use of the term caste to characterize social organization in South Asia, particularly among the Hindus, dates to the middle of the 16th century. Mostly developed in ancient times but is still present in India. Within the framework of traditional values, socially ambitious castes have also been known, when possible, to supplement the of ritual purity by the of numerical strength, economic well-being notably in the form of land ownership , and the ability to mobilize physical force to emerge as the wielders of power in village affairs and in local politics. From the 12th century onward, much of India was ruled by Muslims. The actual fact is that there are classes in a caste, and there are castes in urban communities also. History There is no universally accepted theory about the origin of the Indian caste system.
Each caste is subdivided into certain sub castes which are again endogamous. A number of new castes, such as the Kayasthas scribes and Khatris traders , are mentioned in the sources of this period. Religion has described Brahmin as sacred and also an element of reverence and awe is attached to him. Every caste or sub-caste compels its members to marry within its own group. I pursue a great interest in quilting.
Each caste has its own customs, traditions practices and rituals. These are the characteristics of caste system. Castes have been evolving over the years. B Damle have applied theoretical models to explain mobility and flexibility in the caste system in India. By the end of the Rigvedic period, however, the hereditary principle of social rank had taken root. There are several theories of evolution of castes.
It is reasonable to assume that the caste system, contrary to the popular images of its changelessness, has always been characterized by the efforts of various jatis to raise themselves in the social order. Village Economy and Caste g. In certain times of day even seeing a shudra is considered to be pollution. Some occupations are considered superior and sacred while certain others degrading and inferior. Caste Associations: Though the power of caste is losing its prominence, caste associations are becoming much stronger, especially in political matters.
This second birth entitled them to participate in specified sacraments and gave them access to sacred knowledge. According to Hindu Caste hierarchy. Each jati was associated with one or more hereditary occupations, but certain occupations for example, agriculture or nontraditional civil service were caste-neutral, and there were jati-specific restrictions on what and with whom one could eat and drink. On the other hand, in a capitalist society the wealthy persons are on top. The status of the individual is determined by his birth in a particular caste.
Nevertheless the caste system still flourishes in the country and is deep rooted in the Indian society. Every caste has moral obligation. Legal changes, education, new employment opportunities, urbanisation etc. Rules of Endogamy and Exogamy: There exist a number of rules with regard to marital relations. Thus, membership in the caste hierarchy is based on birth and is more or less fixed. A man also cannot marry a girl, who is related by blood.
The caste has a more functional role in villages than in urban areas. Reinforcement by Religious Beliefs: Religious beliefs have played a significant role in making caste system unavoidable. In absence of religious support such rigid caste system was not possible. The features of a caste system itself consist the degree of superiority and a sense of inferiority amongst people of different classes. Here the higher caste people enjoy all the privileges while the lower caste people suffer from all kinds of disabilities. Within a life cycle, people had little social mobility. Caste and Joint Family System: It is generally argued that caste and joint family system are related to one another.
But, whereas now the caste system has taken a change over. There is a common misunderstanding that class is found only in urban societies and caste is more prevalent in rural societies. Importance of Caste in Various Stages of Life: The life of an individual passes from various phases, such as birth ceremonies, marriage and death. All such rituals are officiated by a Brahmin. The issues normally used to commence about Temple rituals and mainly used to loiter around misplaced priorities on observing or displaying respects to most revered saints and seers who have been demarked based on castes. Each caste member has a caste occupation, which he must follow. Brahmins are on top of this hierarchy while Sudras are at the bottom.
In India religion plays an imp. Since the mid-20th century, however, some scholars have pointed to textual evidence that the distinction referred to ritual practices and not to skin colour; further, the term arya may have been a term for rather than an ethnic self-identification. If the lower castes suffer from certain disabilities some higher caste like the Brahmins enjoy certain privileges like conducting prayers in the temples etc. Whatever the relations between the so-called arya and daha, it is likely that they gradually became into an internally plural social order reflecting a threefold division of society into priests, warriors, and commoners. Banning endogamy within a surname.
Endogamous: It endogamous character strictly prohibits inter-caste marriages. Nonetheless, during the six centuries of Islamic domination c. How it works Castes still rarely intermarry and are definitely not changeable. Although generally identified with Hinduism, the caste system was also observed among followers of other religions in the Indian subcontinent, including some groups of Muslims and Christians. The hierarchy of castes did not have a uniform distribution throughout the country.