The railways, which were the backbone of colonial rule, needed wood for sleepers for laying the lines, and as fuel for the locomotives. With the practice of agriculture came shifting cultivation and gradual destruction of the forests for food and pasture¼ Even after the advent of the British, in the early days of the establishment of their rule, the accessible forests suffered due to large scale felling of valuable timber trees¼ It is only when doubts began to arise whether the timber requirements of the Navy and the Empire would continue to be available without interruption and to the full extent, that the British began to realise that the forests were not so inexhaustible as they were earlier thought to be¼ With the initiative taken by Conolly, Collector of Malabar in 1842, to form teak plantations, came the beginning of scientific forestry in India. Table-3: Forest Supplies from Madras Presidency, 1942-46 Particulars 1942 - 43 1943 - 44 1944 - 45 1945 - 46 Teak logs tons 11,761 14,695 13,795 6,622 Hard wood logs nos. If a man cuts down trees near temples, Chaityas and graves, famine, epidemic and drought follow. In a democratic system the wholehearted restoration of all sections of the population must be and should be ensured. It obliged you, in short, either to take entirely, or to let alone entirely.
The Government set themselves feverishly to work…The urgent demands for timber to provide the sleepers for the new railway lines were met in the time-honoured fashion, and great forest areas in the central and northern parts of India which… had hitherto remained untouched by man, were ruined in order to supply to the demands… Large number of trees were felled in the forests without reference to the possibility of extracting the logs, numbers of which remained in situ unutilised, to be subsequently burnt in the jungle fires. During the interval that has since elapsed, developments of far reaching importance have taken place in the economic and political fields. Forest was their own domain, their economy, social, religious and all found life-sustenance maintained by it. Any person who- a makes any fresh clearing prohibited by section 5, or, b sets fire to reserved forest, or, in contravention of any rules made by the Local Government, kindles any fire or leaves any fire burning, in such manner as to endanger such a forest; or who, in a reserved forest- c kindles, keeps or carries any fire excepts at such seasons, as the Forest Officer may from time to time notify in this behalf; d trespasses or pastures cattle, or permits cattle to trespass; e causes any damage by negligence in felling any tree or cutting or dragging any timber; f fells, girdles, lops, taps or burns any tree, or strips off the bark or leaves from, or otherwise damages the same; g quarries stone, burns lime or charcoal, or collects, subjects to any manufacturing process, or removes any forest-produce; h clears or breaks up any land for cultivation or any other purpose; or, i in contravention of any rules which the Local Government may from time to time prescribe kills or catches elephants, hunts, shoots, fishes, poisons water or sets traps or snares; shall be punished with imprisonment for a term which may extend to six months, or with a fine not exceeding five hundred rupees, or with both, in addition to such compensation for damage done to the forest as the convicting Court may direct to be paid. February 2017 Reserved Forest is an area mass of land duly notified under the provisions of India Forest Act or the State Forest Acts having full degree of protection. If one destroys Chincha trees, serious mischief to the monarch is the consequence.
In South India, about 2,000 groves occur in Kerala, 1,600 in Maharashtra, 800 in Andhra Pradesh and 448 in Tamil Nadu. It is interesting to discover that regulatory forest management in Germany came because of the fear that a timber famine would result from over-cutting, land-clearing and grazing. The reports on the forests in the neighbourhood of the parts of the country, we first occupied, were unanimous in regarding them as inexhaustible, so far as the materials that were required from them were concerned. The Committee demanded that all forests be taken over for management by the government. It is simply to return to the old order of things to restore the communal forests… The remedy is thus simple enough if we are content to be guided by ancient custom and experience. Some of these hardships the cultivators faced were highlighted by Sir William Wedderburn, who wrote a very serious indictment of forestry in India in 1884, from which the following is extracted: We have all heard of the alarming denudation that has been going on for many years, and we have also heard of the hardships which have been inflicted upon the people by means of forest laws in the attempts to repair this mischief… Now this mischief also has arisen from disregard of old village methods.
To complete our story, we cite the following from the speech of Honourable T. The National Forest Policy Resolution 1952 of the Government of India largely re-asserted the methods and objectives of forest management that had been established by the British during the previous hundred years or so. It enabled the Revenue and Forest Department to control the entire forest and grazing land. The tribal people never gave up the struggle for their rights. The original method was that each village had its own tract of communal forest available for grazing purposes, and to supply villages with wood for fuel and other domestic purposes. All provisions of this Act relating to reserved forest shall so far as they are consistent with the rules so made apply to village forests. On control over private forests in the general interests of the community, it was absolutely silent.
The Institute shifted to a new building built at a cost of £750,000 and was inaugurated by the then Viceroy Lord Irwin in November1929. A great impetus to the working of forestry towards the maximum development of industries came from the setting up of the Forest Research Institute at Dehradun in 1906. For the benefit of those who were still sceptical, Brandis wrote that: The Committee appointed by Government to frame the Forest Bill stated their deliberate opinion that there are no Communal Forests in this Presidency, and I may add, as the result of the enquiries made by me in the districts through which I have marched, that I have not been able to discover any facts indicating existence of communal forests. A large class of cases will, however, remain and must be provided for by Forest Law, in which the custom to graze the village cattle and to cut wood for the requirements of the village have grown up in a manner in every respect similar to the growth of rights of Common or of forest rights in Europe. It was for the first time that people's perception was taken care of in addressing biomass needs and extension activities through social forestry were introduced. A fairly large number of officers are Post Graduate in various subjects. According to Stebbing: The changes were small and consisted mainly in redrafting the previous Act and its amendments.
Besides serving the 31 Forest Departments in the States and Union Territories managing the country's natural resources, a good number of them work in various Ministries and institutions both in the State and Central Government. After forty years, in 1935-36, this figure had come down to 3,19,286 sq. While this first phase of forest conservancy did ensure the supply of all the teak the British Navy wanted, the forests of the West Coast of India got rapidly denuded. The introduction of a forest Act in Madras Presidency removed all obstacles in the way of the emergence of modern forestry in the country. In this context, Brandis cites the following interesting incident: Surgeon C. The notion widely entertained that forestry, as such, has no intrinsic right to land but may be permitted on sufferance on residual land not required for any other purpose, has to be combated. As a result there was a seething discontent all over.
May 12, 1952 by the Ministry of Food and Agriculture was formulated on the basis of six paramount needs of the country emphasising specially on scientific management, functional classification of the forests, afforestation, revenue collection etc. A detailed analysis of the anti-agriculture policy of the Forest Department was presented by J. On the question of the rights of the local population over forests, Brandis writes: It has been maintained that the customary use of forest in India here spoken of is usually not based upon a right but upon a privilege. Thereafter, the State Government issues notification under section 20 of the Indian Forest Act, 1927 declaring that piece of land to be a Reserved Forest. He argues that the villagers who from time immemorial were accustomed to cut and graze in the nearest jungle lands did not acquire a right by prescription, because they used the forest without any distinct grant or license and without any idea of asserting a right as against the ruling power or against other individuals or communities; that the State had not exercised its full right over the forests, which were left open to anyone who chose to use them; but that the right of the State was unimpaired and was asserted whenever a Native Ruler chose to close whole areas of forests to preserve the game, as in the well-known instances of the Belas of Sindh enclosed by the Amirs.
By felling in six years a volume that should have lasted fifteen to twenty years, or even longer, tremendous inroads were made into capital. In Section 79 the duties of the public to prevent and extinguish forest fires and help Forest or Police Officers in preventing forest offence were clarified and made somewhat more extensive. This classification is merely illustrative and is by no means mutually exclusive. These sacred forests, as a rule, are never touched by the axe, except when wood is wanted for the repair of religious buildings, or in special cases for other purposes. The Indian Forest Act, 1865, was passed by the colonial government to provide legislative back-up to the upcoming forestry regime.