When we think of gender, we think of femininity- gender study classes only being for women. We want to think about the most basic questions. Excerpts from Down So Long. Plausible does not mean true, of course. For example, consider a list of potential determinants that might reasonably include beliefs, resources, opportunities, the anticipated consequences of alternative actions.
The goal is to work through the various ways that ideas and expectations are involved in the causal processes surrounding gender inequality using the chosen example to do this at a more concrete level. Women face a double bind in the legal profession, and are frequently punished for not fitting in to the masculine ideals of what a lawyer should be. Why and when do people respond differently to women than men? But this Mars-Venus essentialist claptrap about evolutionary psychology as a whole——that's not only wrong, it's not even evolutionary psychology. Analyses of gender inequality attribute great importance to the economy. How can we explain this pattern? Recommended and related readings are optional materials useful for those who want to dig deeper into a topic.
And some of these sex differences are going to be remarkably robust. Racialization, as a concept recognizes that the attribution of 'race' and the consequences of that attribution are a process rather than the outcome of an immutable and obvious characteristic; and that race is a cultural category and idea rather than a biological one. And, just as important, ask why it is that people punish nonconformists. Through the law, regulations, and bureaucratic policies, a state can define what constitutes acceptable or legitimate behavior at all levels of social organization. Consider not only the common readings from this week, but also past readings and optional ones from this week that seem particularly relevant.
Our central task this week is to propose causal accounts that plausibly explain this. Evolutionary scientists only expect men will, on average, seek and consent to casual sexual encounters more than women will. Whenever we try to explain patterns like this, we want to consider the exceptions. Just as not all men are taller than all women and yet men are taller than women, on average , men are expected by evolutionary psychologists to be more eager than women for indiscriminate casual sex, but only on average. So the differences appear to be based on gender differences, but they are actually based on the situation. These approaches highlight the socialization process that teaches boys and girls to live up to the expectations for their respective genders. Every week, students will initiate discussions on readings and papers.
Our behaviour in the family has more to do with family situation we are in than our gender socialization. This would lead us to ask how and why women and men find themselves at different rates in circumstances that promote aggression toward the other sex. It may be worth noting that one reason explanations based on sex differences including all the preceding perspectives are more common is that formulating a plausible analysis that forgoes the mechanism of sex differences is often a hard task. Sex differences in sex drive, sociosexuality, and height across 53 nations: Testing evolutionary and social structural theories. Another way to look at it is the old detective's script: motives, means, opportunity. States or governments have power. This may be abstract at the level of the causal model.
Cultural structures such as the interplanetary theory of gender that men and women are from different planets and hence innately different and the reinforcement of gender differences in media help to prove that gender is a social construction. Beginning in the early 1990s, much of the emphasis in evolutionary psychology theory and research turned to explaining sexuality differences within genders. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 23, 573-644. We are not trying to develop a full, professional analysis. Some argue that there is actually a lot more diversity among men and woman than in between them ; that men and woman actually have a lot in common. American Journal of Sociology, 93 1988 : 1060-1095.
At this stage we are not aspiring to a professional job but hoping to achieve a reasonable, if basic, analysis. Not a Mars-Venus type of gender divide mind you with all men always promiscuous and all women always monogamous. Analogously, a state can, in theory, obstruct, destabilize, or diminish social inequality by using its power in ways that are inconsistent with social inequalities. That is, we figure out what they suggest are the conditions or processes that have the most important influence over the outcomes. A Content Analysis and Comparison with Magazine Adverts. Gender inequality has been extraordinarily diverse and wide spread. Women and men are unequal in every conceivable way in endless circumstances, both immediate and enduring, by both objective criteria and subjective experience.
Our central task this week is to propose a causal account that plausibly explains the relationship between one aspect of sexuality and gender inequality. There are multiple masculinities, but not all are created equal; influenced by race, ethnicity, age, sexuality, religion, etc. Although some scholars may question if women have been subordinate in all societies, all agree that men have been dominant in most societies although the degree of dominance varies greatly. The concept of no gender is unrealistic and unattainable in the public domain, because factors such as characteristics, personalities, and jobs automatically create… words a gender. While such fictitious differences are commonly assumed to be biological, they need not be. The purpose of the task specification that follows is to help you to be systematic about this.
We want to assess how much we believe people's actions in the context we chose fit the expectations we can derive from her argument and when they might not. Probably the simplest technique it to focus on one characteristic and consider the most extreme plausible possibilities. Second, we must consistently distinguish between contemporaneous causes e. This question applies to both women and men. Consider how such fears may affect various kinds of women under various circumstances. This appraisal should stress the causes of relevant facets of gender inequality, how the proposed strategy will affect that causal process, and how gender inequality has a causal influence on government policy that must be countered to implement the policy.