Minority patients are more likely to undergo amputation that white patients. These differences persisted in analyses adjusting for patient and hospital characteristics. Quality of care refers to the degree to which health services for individuals and populations increase the likelihood of desired health outcomes and are consistent with current professional knowledge. If you are writing a systematic review, you can find useful information in. Black patients in this study presented at a significantly higher stage of cancer development than whites 26.
Similarly, in a review of discharge data from over 1. Analyzing the past to prepare for the future: Writing a literature review. These findings, however, must be interpreted with caution, as many clinical considerations complicate interpretation of these data. Starting the process of conducting and writing a literature can be overwhelming. In addition, within research-based texts such as a Doctoral thesis, a literature review identifies a research gap i. Finally, one of the most significant limitations of existing research is the failure to analyze differences in care beyond comparisons of African-American and white patients.
Results indicated that African Americans and Hispanics were significantly more likely to be hospitalized for preventable conditions than whites, even after adjusting for patient differences in healthcare needs, socioeconomic status, insurance coverage, and the availability of primary care providers. Further, minorities tend to have lower access than whites to specialty care, and are less likely to be treated in settings that offer higher-technology procedures — all factors related to the quality of care in the studies reviewed here. They can further understand the significance of the topic or subject matter of the research. It gives importance of , education, or nursing, discovering the relationships between the different concepts and studies, identifying the major themes of a research and the problems that may arise, to finally discuss every question that could have come out of the whole research, giving some depth and explaining the topic in a form of introduction. Discrimination, as the committee uses the term, refers to differences in care that result from biases, prejudices, stereotyping, and uncertainty in clinical communication and decision-making.
Ayanian, Cleary, Weissman and Epstein 1999 found that African-American male patients were significantly less likely than white males to report wanting a transplant. The act of reviewing involves evaluating individual sources as well as synthesising these sources in order to gain a broad view of the field. If you have a very broad and general topic, your literature search is likely to be very lengthy and time-consuming. Findings of racial or ethnic differences in asthma care are therefore somewhat mixed, and may vary as a function of the educational level of patient populations studied. For further information see our handouts on Writing a Critical Review of a Nonfiction Book or Article or Reading a Book to Review It. This means that the person writing the paper should forget about biased language, specifying in a simple way without losing depth, being sensitive to all subjects and labels, and explaining everything in an appealing manner. It is a short form of the final paper or thesis.
Several studies note racial and ethnic disparities in hospital-based and outpatient child health services. The 24-hour dosage of antipsychotic medication given to African Americans was also significantly higher that for other patients. For more helpful information — right now! For the health professions, racial and ethnic disparities in healthcare pose moral and ethical dilemmas that will be among the most significant challenges of today's rapidly changing health systems. Patients' outcomes following medical intervention reflect a wide range of factors, some of which are unrelated to the intervention itself e. Subsequent criticism of the study noted that the limited sample and geographic setting, coupled with the fact that most of the facilities studied offered both angiography and revascularization on-site, may have limited the study's ability to detect group differences in procedure use Kressin and Peterson, 2001. Nevertheless, the study provides strong evidence that lower rates of intervention among this sample of African-American patients were associated with lower rates of survival.
While the unadjusted overall rate of cesarean delivery was similar in white and non-white over 90% African- American and other racial and ethnic groups patients, adjusted analyses that controlled for clinical risk factors revealed that non-white patients were more likely to receive cesarean delivery. For purposes of addressing the study charge, however, the committee's focus extends only to the direct and indirect effects of race and ethnicity in the process, structure, and outcomes of healthcare. On the other hand, physicians are placed in the position of serving as managers of vital, yet limited healthcare resources. In this article, we will be discussing, 1. In one such study, Ayanian et al. Historians and theologians tend to focus primarily on its place within Protestant thinking and its role in the Reformation, generally seeing the earlier Catholic inheritance as something that began with Augustine and stopped with Aquinas. Similarly, black patients with squamous cell carcinoma were less likely than whites to undergo surgical resection, but were more likely to receive radiation therapy and chemotherapy.
The authors found that approximately 60% of the differences between African-American and white waiting list entry rates and 52% of the black-white differences in transplantation rates were due to race-related differences in socioeconomic status, health and functional status, severity of illness, biological factors, the existence of contraindications to transplantation, transplant center characteristics, and patients' attitudes about dialysis and transplantation. Analyze the whole literature, all the sample, variables, results, and conclusions. Function Introduction introduces the main text to the readers. Have other intelligent people proofread the paper, and indicate what sections do not flow well or make sense to them. To do this the person must never generalize, calling things as they should be called and always making the subject as something active, without losing the meaning and in the easiest way to understand. The most significant gap in this research is the failure to identify mechanisms by which these disparities occur.
If the full article is not available via this route, your school library is a good place to turn. If you are an undergraduate or graduate student, there is a good chance that you will be asked to conduct at least one during your coursework. Include why your particular project's focus is important and how it differs from previous research on the topic. Just as any other piece of literature out there, the process of literature review outlining is very important in order to help you gain the momentum to write. The following video, Write a Literature Review — Part One, offers an introduction to literature reviews. In addition, the committee focused its review on those studies that attempt to assess the contribution of a range of other potential confounding variables, such as racial and ethnic differences in disease severity, stage of illness progression, patient preferences for non-invasive procedures or to avoid complex treatments, types of settings where care is received e.