However, the diagonal cells can be used for representing self-iterations e. It is only a matter of looking at the organization and its goals in order to arrive at a decision on which model is more appropriate. What do you do with several thousand people when the project is completed? As previously pointed out, the functional manager is normally perceived by project personnel to be the real boss. They indicate that many of these difficulties occur in more conventional organizations, but that the matrix seems somewhat more vulnerable to these particular ailments. Matrix organizations are very effective at maintaining good coordination. Advantages of a Matrix Structure Many are opting to adapt the matrix organizational structure because it is deemed to be the most beneficial to them. It may also lead to unhealthy competition between the managers when it comes to choosing of.
As previously indicated, the matrix meets a number of well-defined needs. Communication also flows from team to two bosses. This concentration on the internal workings of the organization is most likely to occur in the early phases of a matrix when new behaviors have to be learned. The bureaucratic structure is one of the several types of classical organizational structures. Procedures are instituted to ensure cross-departmental cooperation and interaction towards the achievement of extra-departmental goals. King, Management: A Systems Approach. Because people from different departments are cooperating so closely, they are eager to share data that will help them achieve common goals.
Employees within the functional divisions of an organization tend to perform a specialized set of tasks, for instance the engineering department would be staffed only with software engineers. In a matrix there are usually two chains of command, one along functional lines and the other along project, product, or client lines. However, it could also give rise to different ones. For example, a firm can switch between different providers and thus respond more quickly to different market needs. In this way, each local manager reports to at least two superiors: the geographic head e. However, a matrix organization structure also introduces a higher level of internal complexity and some additional people management challenges, so there must be significant advantages to a matrix organization structure that outweigh the matrix people management challenges.
There is not a one-size-fits-all solution. The matrix was the next logical development. Such dual focus advocates the need to create a matrix as a way to maximize the outcome of both product and functionality. As indicated previously, if only takes one uncooperative disciplinary manager dragging his feet to make the whole project fail. The reporting requirements in matrix organizations tend to have more complexities, and this translates to higher expenditures. The principal need is for an organizational structure that can handle the great complexity of a multidisciplinary effort.
If he is to be effective, the project manager must be on at least an equal level with the highest level of functional management that he must deal with. Any medium sized organization producing a product can be an example of weak matrix, the organization involve in projects only can be an example of strong matrix. The matrix organizational form is only desirable if there is a real need for its added complexity. Furthermore, divisional structures permit decentralized decision making, which allows managers with specific expertise to make key decisions in their area. Matrix management further requires a workforce that has a diverse set of skills and employees that have strong interpersonal abilities. Response to change is faster One result of the faster flow and exchange of information is the improved rate of response to changes and other unforeseen circumstances. If all major decisions are made with the concurrence of the involved functional managers, the project manager finds himself in a very strong position in insisting that the decision be carried out and that the desired goals be accomplished.
He is critical to conflict management that intrinsically occurs due to dual chain of commands underneath him. They should adopt the functional organization structure instead. How much control does product manager has over the functional requirements of the product? Characteristics of organizational structure relating to hybrid competitive strategy. They are expected to perform specialized tasks, so that is basically all they do and all that is expected of them. But growth and change is inevitable, and organizations have to be flexible to accommodate such changes. In addition, the people are spread across a whole functional organization and each department has only a few people to relocate. In addition, accountability is increased because divisional performance can be measured more easily.
However, there is no agreement among the experts as to whether a balance of power is necessary or even desirable. Sinking refers to the observation that there seems to be some difficulty in keeping the matrix viable at the corporate or institutional level, and a corresponding tendency for it to sink down to lower levels in the organization where it survives and thrives. If the authority of performance evaluation is given to only one boss, then the positional power of other boss reduces considerably and thereby his effectiveness. To avoid confusion and work efficiently in a matrix organization, you must be clear on your role, responsibilities, and the work priorities. In the electronics company example mentioned above, application of this model would have the employees from the departments working together in a cross-departmental manner, without leaving their respective departments.
For example, one study showed that between 1961 and 1978 about one-quarter of all teaching hospitals in the United States moved to unit or matrix management structures. However it could also lead to a lack of communication between the functional groups within an organization, making the organization slow and inflexible. This saves money and can improve coordination. It found that traditional management structures were too bureaucratic, hierarchical, slow-moving, and inflexible. This increase in complexity can result in a higher manager-to-worker ratio, which can in turn increase costs or lead to conflicting employee loyalties. Not the least of these reasons is the fact that we are dealing with people, and all people, including managers, are different. The company recognizes the importance of strategic alignment involving various facets of the business.
Anarchy is defined as a company quite literally coming apart at the seams during a period of stress. Similarly, each functional manager will consider that the allocation of resources and priorities within his department is his own business. For example, when the finance manager of a region has to coordinate intensely with the heads of the country subsidiaries in that region, it may make sense to put the business controller of each subsidiary in a matrixed position, that is, to have each of these report not only to their respective subsidiary head but also the region finance manager. Starbucks evolves to ensure that its organizational structure matches current business needs. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1969, pp.
Making the Matrix Work After examining the disadvantages and problems of working in a matrix organization, one may view the problems as insurmountable. Each group of specialists can therefore operate independently with management acting as the point of cross-communication between functional areas. The product manager is generally concerned with product-specific issues that cut across regional or national boundaries. Galbraith has described the managerial alternatives as a continuum ranging from pure project to functional figure 10 13 17. For instance, they are typically expensive to maintain, partly because of more complex reporting requirements.