Studies on aging have demonstrated that some nephrons may fail as we get older. How does it differ from the baseline trace? The amount of body fluids and the levels of body wastes definitely play critical physiologic roles that cause changes in the afferent or efferent roles. Use your graph to answer and note that the dot in the graph turns red when you select that line in the table. About half of the million nephrons start to die and fail to function but the rest remain their activities. Explain why their optical density measurements were different.
How did the hyperventilation trace differ from the trace for the normal breathing? There should be less digestion at a lower temperature due to the fact that the enzyme is most efficient at 37 deg. Peptidase does not work on carbohydrate substrates so has no effect on digestion of these molecules. Hint: Look at the results for tube 4. Activity 3 Which pH provided the highest pepsin activity? Histology Atlas and Review Supplement review supplement worksheets available only on website. What is the glomerular filtration rate? Exercise 8: Chemical and Physical Processes of Digestion: Activity 2: Exploring Amylase Substrate Specificity Lab Report Pre-lab Quiz Results You scored 100% by answering 5 out of 5 questions correctly.
Activity 3: Combined Effects 1. Activity 2: Effect of Pressure on Glomerular Filtration 8. Which of the following is true of enzymes and substrates? Did the pH level of the blood change at all during normal breathing? Aging causes inevitable physical and physiological degenerations and the renal system is not exempted from that normal change. If blood pressure went down — for example, as the result of blood loss — what changes would the kidney need to make to maintain its normal filtration rate? What happens to the urea concentration in the left beaker the patient? More blood in the glomeruli means more work, so the job has to be done faster. In contrast, when the amount of fluid to be filtered is less, the urine will become concentrated. The secretion of erythropoetin from the kidneys stimulates testosterone in males. Activity 3: Investigating Graded Muscle Response to Increased Stimulus Intensity 1.
Anxiety, stress, or panic attacks, caused by over breathing Activity 2b: Hyperventilation — Run 2 1. What happens to the glucose concentration as you add glucose carriers to the system? What affect does boiling have on enzyme activity? Neurophysiology of Nerve Impulses 4. Increasing the solute concentration in the urine and that makes the urine formed very concentrated. Soon after you applied the stimuli, did the heart rate increase or decrease? They did not pass through because the solute mass was greater than twenty. Addition of aldosterone does not change the urine concentration but slightly decreases the urine volume and slightly increases the potassium concentration.
Due to lack of the glucose carriers relatively less than the amount of glucose to be transported, high amount of glucose could not be carried across leaving high concentration discarded with the urine formed. The excess amount must be diffused to reach equilibrium. Explain your answer, based on what you know about the substrate of peptidase. Over 1,000,000 satisfied customers since 1997! The other physiological functions particularly the metabolic functions of the body also decline with age and that can significantly decrease the workload of the nephrons. Repeat the swallowing process while your laboratory partner watches the externally visible movements of your larynx. Book is in Used-Good condition. Neurophysiology of Nerve Impulses 4.
The kidney will also need to increase the blood input which can be practically accomplished through blood transfusion and fluid hydration or increasing the body fluid intake orally or intravenously. Boiling inactivates, or denatures, enzymes. The glomerular filtration rate kept on increasing with gradual increase of the pressure. Amylase had no affect on the cellulose in tube 4 What effect did the addition of bacteria have on the digestion of cellulose? The mechanisms involve various hormones and electrolytes and are largely dependent on the amount of metabolic activity, the extrinsic control mechanism depending on the perfusion needs of the cells, and the vascular resistance generated by the blood pressure. Aldosterone caused just slight decrease in the urine volume. The software is accompanied by step-by-step worksheets specifically written for 2-semester anatomy and physiology students i.
Therefore, the K+ ions will diffuse down its concentration gradient from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration. Increasing extracellular K+ causes the membrane potential to change to a less negative value because the K+ ions diffuse out across the membrane. Which tube is included to detect contaminating amylase in the buffer or in cellulose? The afferent or efferent arteriole radius can dilate or constrict depending on the impulses generated by the sympathetic nerves keeping the autonomic control of blood flow depending on the concentration levels of the body electrolytes and metabolic wastes which are the main basis of blood flow autoregulation. The glomerular filtration rate in baseline data is 124. Use the simulation to help you answer this question if you are not sure.
An apparently unread copy in perfect condition. The data support the concept that the reduction of the size of the afferent radius will definitely affect the glomerular filtration functions. Stimulus frequency refers to You correctly answered: b. Negative What does it mean that the voltage just inside the membrane is negative? What happened to the urine volume as the concentration gradient increased? If blood pressure went down — for example, as the result of blood loss — what changes would the kidney need to make to maintain its normal filtration rate? The heartbeat trace showed a flat line then jumped back to normal and then flat lined again it continue to follow this trace continuously. Would the amylase present in saliva be active in the stomach? In the experiment, glucose in the urine become zero when 400 glucose carriers were added which means adding enough glucose carriers will facilitate reuptake of the glucose leaving nothing in the unabsorbed water formed as urine. Choose expedited shipping if available for much faster delivery. What do you think would happen if you decreased the temperature of incubation to 10 deg.
Increasing the afferent arteriole radius increased the glomerular filtration rate. Cellulose is digestible by bacteria What was the effect of the different enzyme, peptidase, used in tube 6? If you put the same amount of glucose in the right beaker as in the left, would you be able to observe any diffusion? How did increasing the afferent arteriole radius affect glomerular filtration rate? Use the simulation to determine your answer. Which materials diffused from the left beaker to the right beaker? Increasing the afferent arteriole radius increased the glomerular filtration rate. What do you think would happen if you decreased the temperature of incubation to 10 deg. Addition of both hormones increases the urine concentration and the potassium concentration while the significantly decreases the urine volume as the agonistic effects of both from their similar effects. The pulmonary system works by moving air into and out of the lungs by ventilation, then diffuses the gases between pleural spaces in the lungs and bloodstream. How well did the results compare with your prediction… neuron? Cell Transport Mechanisms and Permeability 2.