Focusing on the amount of time students spend on homework, however, may miss the point. The analysis will look at the relationship between attitudes and behaviors abouthomework and studying in high school and whether students change their attitudes and behaviorswhen in their first semester of engineering school. Her educational research interests include the use of technology in engineering education, incorporation of critical thinking in engineering education, and ways to improve retention. Research by Ducksworth andSeligman 2005 showed that people with greater self-control spent more time on homeworkthan students who scored lower on self-control scales. This characteristic is important because U.
For example, parents can confuse children if the instructional techniques they use differ from those used by teachers. The relationship between homework andperformance has also been studied at the college level. For example, students who have just learned a new English tense should be given sample exercise to use the tense accurately in model sentences. However, there is clear evidence of the importance of raising our attention to an insightful reflection on homework especially nowadays that technology has entered majestically into every home, making so many more resources available to learners outside the classroom. During the 1940s, the emphasis in education shifted from drill to problem solving.
For example, ensure that homework is at the appropriate level of difficulty. The Brief Self-Control Scale will also beadministered at the end of the semester. Pickering is a private consultant and Director of Staff Development in Littleton Public Schools, Littleton, Colorado;. American Journal of Education, 109, 27—62. The Dangers of Ignoring the Research Certainly, inappropriate homework may produce little or no benefit—it may even decrease student achievement. Homework is a complicated thing. Homework, it was believed, could accelerate knowledge acquisition.
This loss of interest is a result of poor quality homework that some teachers may assign such as memorizing lists of vocabulary items. He added that when required reading is included as a type of homework, the 10-minute rule might be increased to 15 minutes. High self-control predicts good adjustment, less pathology, better grades and interpersonal success. By 1940, growing concern that homework interfered with other home activities sparked a reaction against it. The Cooper, Robinson, and Patall 2006 study reported similar findings: 7 to 12 hours of homework per week produced the largest effect size for 12th grade students. For example, referring to Harris Cooper, the lead author of the two leading meta-analyses on homework, Kohn noted, A careful reading of Cooper's own studies. The predominant opinion on homework has changed over time as thechallenges facing the country have changed Copper, 2007.
Educational Researcher, 35 5 , 24—29. If a district or school discards homework altogether, however, it will be throwing away a powerful instructional tool. Throughout the first few decades of the 20th century, educators commonly believed that homework helped create disciplined minds. Interactive homework in middle school: Effects on family involvement and science achievement. Students, teachers and parents can monitor progress. Overall, the positive relationship is about half as strong as in the first type of study. Educational Leadership, 47 3 , 85-91.
Homework can actually lead to the acquisition of undesirable character traits if it promotes cheating, either through the copying of assignments or help with homework that goes beyond tutoring. Yet repeated visits to the medical journals themselves can leave a much different impression. Psychological Science, 16 12 , 939-944. Nora Honken is a doctoral candidate in Educational Leadership and Organizational Development at the University of Louisville. Students must apply previous learning to complete these assignments.
Homework is designed to reinforce lessons learned in school, and therefore should be completed by students. In I will show how teachers can use homework effectively and what type of homework they should focus on. Journal of Educational Research, 76, 351—360. Viewpoint: The myth about homework. Arguments against homework are becoming louder and more popular, as evidenced by several recent books as well as an editorial in Time magazine Wallis, 2006 that presented these arguments as truth without much discussion of alternative perspectives. She has extensive professional experience in engineering and management. I weighed my bag the other day, and it was 110lbs! Schools should strengthen their policies to ensure that teachers use homework properly.
The relationship at the elementary school level is only one-quarter that of the high school level. Appropriate Amounts of Homework Experts agree that the amount and type of homework should depend on the developmental level of the student. Does homework improve academic achievement? Educational Researcher, 25 8 , 27—30. The Cooper synthesis 1989a reported that for junior high school students, the benefits increased as time increased, up to 1 to 2 hours of homework a night, and then decreased. The predominant opinion on homework has changed over time as thechallenges facing the country have changed Copper, 2007. One type compares students who receive homework with students who receive none. For example, Cooper 2007 recommended on the basis of 60-plus years of homework research that teachers should not comment on or grade every homework assignment.
Educational Leadership, 41 8 , 4—18. For students in primary grades, the correlation between time spent on homework and achievement is near zero. A significant proportion of the research on homework indicates that the positive effects of homework relate to the amount of homework that the student completes rather than the amount of time spent on homework or the amount of homework actually assigned. The present study was undertaken to study the attitude of school students towards homework and to find out if there is any gender difference in the attitude towards homework. Children from disadvantaged homes may have more difficulty completing assignments than their middle-class counterparts. The effects of homework on learning: A quantitative synthesis.
The launch of the satellite Sputnik by the Soviet Union in the mid-1950s reversed this thinking. In his early meta-analysis, Cooper 1989a reported the following effect sizes p. All three of the books criticizing homework provide compelling anecdotes to this effect. Assignments that involve review and preparation are more effective than homework that focuses only on material covered in class on the day of the assignments. Increasingly, however, students expect help from their parents on more challenging assignments. The analysis will look at the relationship between attitudes and behaviors abouthomework and studying in high school and whether students change their attitudes and behaviorswhen in their first semester of engineering school. Australian Journal of Education, 36 1 , 5—13.