The ruling class mosca. The myth of the ruling class : Gaetano Mosca and the : with the first English translation of the final version of The theory of the ruling class, foreword 1962 (Book, 1980) [www.mythingsapp.com] 2019-02-06

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Elite theory

the ruling class mosca

Those are the feelings that are best calculated to undermine the structure of a nation or civilization and destroy it. But this civilization developed the rudiments of agricultural science and made other material advances. In the course of this evolution, around the year 1333, King Casimir the Great tried vainly to curb the overbearing insolence of the warriors. At any rate, if a society ha shad no revolutions and undergone no serious political changes for some centuries, when it begins at last to emrge from its long torpor it is much more easily persuaded that the triumph of a new doctrine, the establishment of a new form of government, will mark the beginning of a new era, a new golden age, and that on its advent all men will become good and happy in a new land of Cathay. The Oriental societies which we consider stationary have in reality not always been so, for otherwise, as we have already pointed out, they could not have made the advances in civilization of which they have left irrefutable evidence. In China, too, down to a few years ago, though the government had not accepted the principle of popular elections, it was organized on an essentially equalitarian basis. Complete immobility in a human society is an artificial thing, whereas continuous change in ideas, sentiments and customs, {p.

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Mosca's Machiavellian theory of the Ruling Class

the ruling class mosca

Now history very definitely shows the special abilities as well as the special defects - both very marked - which have been displayed by aristocracies that have either remained absolutely closed or have made entry into their circles difficult. In a society already somewhat mature - where, therefore, individual power is curbed by the collective power - if the powerful are as a rule the rich, to be rich is to become powerful. It is inevitable that a new bourgeoisie should eventually emerge in Russia from the ranks of the very men who carried the revolution through, and that private property should be reestablished in substance if not in form. Today it would not be strictly necessary to conform to the letter of the apologue of Menenius Agrippa - it would not be necessary for all the members to combine against the stomach or, better, against the directing brain. Among human beings polygamy does not necessarily imply greater fertility.

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Elite theory

the ruling class mosca

The progeny of Jewish families that are converted to Christianity or to Islamism rarely retain the characteristics of their ancestors for any length of time - for many generations, that is; and the unconverted Jew best preserves his special type in countries where he keeps most to himself. Social stabilization has been considerably weakened in the West but it is far from being a thing of the past. The children of men of highest mentality often have very mediocre talents. Many facts to the contrary readily occur to one - {p. He describes the phenomenon in great detail, and discusses its properties, dynamics, etc.

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Social Flashcards

the ruling class mosca

But an attentive examination of the phenomenon shows that the general impoverishment was a consequence, rather than a cause, of the political decline, since a bad financial administration was largely responsible for it. Golden Rule : The Investment Theory of Party Competition and the Logic of Money-Driven Political Systems. This variation in type could safely be regarded as due to physical diversities, to racial variations, to the different blood that flows in the veins of each different nationality, did it not find its explanation in another fact, which is one of the best {p. Save for rare and rarely complete exceptions, a person thinks, judges and believes the way the society in which he lives thinks, judges and believes. We are obliged to admit that science and social morality originated in aristocracies, and that even today they normaily find their most consistent practitioners in aristocracies. But we do not think that even provisions as radical as these would suffice to establish in the world an absolute justice that will never be realized, but which will always be appealed to by those who are trying to upset the system of social rankings that {p. Among all the arguments in favor of a doctrine, the most convincing will always be the one that represents its triumph as inevitable in a more or less immediate future.

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The Ruling Class by Gaetano Mosca

the ruling class mosca

We generally become indifferent to danger or, perhaps better, to a given type of danger, when the persons with whom we daily live speak of it with indifference and remain cool and imperturbable before it. Today there is hardly a factory worker who does not believe, or at least has not been told over and over again, that the wealth of his employer, or of the shareholders who have supplied capital for his factory, has been amassed by depriving workingmen of some of the wages that were due them, and in not a few countries there is hardly a farmhand to whom the same good tidings have not been brought. The Chinese succeeded in founding a highly original civilization which has shown wondrous powers of survival and even more wondrous powers of expansion. Mosca displays a profound understanding of both human nature and the structure of human societies throughout his work; over and over again one comes across a passage that reads as remarkably prescient - especially when one considers that it was published before the second World War. Meisel, Ann Arbor Paperbacks, Michigan, 1962. It would be strange indeed if they did not take advantage of such a strategic position to give their children a start in life. As for us, we find it as hard to agree as to disagree in terms at all positive.

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The myth of the ruling class: Gaetano Mosca and the : with the first ...

the ruling class mosca

In such circumstances aristocracies of functionaries arise, such as the Roman senate, the Venetian nobility and to a certain extent the English aristocracy. We might, indeed, mention the economic exhaustion of Roman society in that period as one of the factors in the fall of the western empire. There are of course wide differences between a great modern European or American state and the Athenian or Spartan state, or the Roman state during the republican period; but had it not been for the writings of political thinkers of the classical age, whose minds were formed by the political institutions they could see operating before their eyes, modern Europe, and the countries that were colonized by Europeans beyond the seas, would not have adopted the political systems that distinguish them so sharply from the Asiatic empires. We shall not stop to refute this democratic theory here, since that is the task of this work as a whole. They have a tendency, that is, to remain at the point and in the state in which they find themselves. But the empire brought peace. It may seem strange at first glance that, in general, people should insist that their rulers have the loftiest and most delicate moral qualities and think much of the public interest and little of their own, but that when they themselves are in question.

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The Ruling Class by Gaetano Mosca

the ruling class mosca

In this event, it is inevitable that the warrior class should little by little acquire such ascendancy over the other as to be able to oppress it with impunity. This state of affairs is becoming very hard to change, and of it has come the syndicalist peril - the danger, that is, that a small group may impose its will upon the rest of society. Rarely do members of such aristocracies attain the outstanding positions in political life, but they render a perhaps more effective service to the world by molding the minds and guiding {p. She is single, but feels married to her work. But strangely enough, even doctrines that are apparently more realistic and should yield their fruits in this life succeed very well in surviving the refutations of them that are supplied by experience and the facts of everyday living. But gradually as this order of things grew stabilized, as one class became habituated to the practice of arms and military organization while the other hardened to the use of the plow and the spade, the warriors became nobles and masters, and the peasants, once companions and brothers, became villeins and serfs.

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Sociology Exam 2 Flashcards

the ruling class mosca

In our opinion, one of the most important changes would concern legislation on the press. These results were regarded, of course, as desirable results, which were to be achieved by the majority will because they were desirable. If a reform is inevitable, there is not much that one can do about it. Among peoples that have recently entered the agricultural stage and are relatively civilized, it is the unvarying fact that the strictly military class is the political, or ruling, class. . The rich invariably have a considerably shorter road to travel than the poor, to say nothing of the fact that the stretch of road that the rich are spared is often the roughest and most difficult.

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Social Flashcards

the ruling class mosca

The symposium was published that same year in Switzerland. In Russia, in the name of that dictatorship, t he old ruling class has been all but exterminated and replaced by another that is certainly shrewder and more energetic, and perhaps even more intelligent. {endquote} To a mind as much imbued with liberal ideas as that of our author the reply that social forces could express themselves outside the representative regime, in the mass organization of a revolutionary party, would have been incomprehensible. To the same outlook may be attributed the stubborn and frequent use of dead languages that we find in ancient Chaldea, in India, and in medieval Europe. Every group of persons that is engaged in a special function has a certain homogeneousness of spirit, education and, especially, interests. What is more, democracy prevails not only in institutions but to a certain extent also in morals. Ways can surely be found to maintain freedom for scientific investigation and for honest criticism of acts of government, and at the same time to place restraints on the corruption of minds that are, and will forever remain, minds of children.

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Social Flashcards

the ruling class mosca

On the same basis, the regime in Italy, a monarchy, is much more similar to the regime in France, a republic, than it is to the regime in England, also a monarchy; and there are important differences between the political organizations of the United States and France, though both countries are republics. The first infiltrations must have taken place during a prehistoric period, when a pre-Hellenic civilization fiowered, with Crete as its center, and then vanished, leaving only vague memories of itself. It quieted conflicts between the nations and entrusted all public functions to salaried employees. But it is that very fact that makes the 1928 pronouncement so remarkable. This is not my reading of Mosca; instead, I think that Mosca means that elites circulate as one is overthrown and replaced with another endlessly.

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