Logistics managers are required to efficiently and effectively manage logistics operations. There is no evidence to confirm that either set of assumptions is valid. An Empirical Test of a New Theory of Human Needs. In Y-Type organizations, people at lower levels of the organization are involved in decision making and have more responsibility. Thus, they can be positively appoached by the managers for problem solving leading to improved results compared to alternative approach of authoritarian measures. The soft approach, however, is to be permissive and seek harmony in the hopes that, in return, employees will cooperate when asked.
Douglas McGregor's landmark book, The Human Side of Enterprise, changed the path of management thinking and practice by questioning fundamental assumptions about human behavior in organizations. Draws on psychology, sociology, anthropology, economics, and medicine. The results are explored further in the article. Scientifically select employees and then train them to do the job as described in step 1 3. However, because there is no optimal way for a manager to choose between adopting either Theory X or Theory Y, it is likely that a manager will need to adopt both approaches depending on the evolving circumstances and levels of internal and external locus of control throughout the workplace.
Management use of Theory X and Theory Y can affect employee motivation and productivity in different ways, and managers may choose to implement strategies from both theories into their practices. Need for rapid growth of higher education, issues in compensation, developments in information technology and dearth for teaching and technical skills brought teacher motivation to the center stage. For example there may be peak experiences for temporary self-actualization and self-transcendence. Motivation is often connected to the level that members of an organization become invested or involved in its actions and mission. Additionally, the act of measurement, itself, impacts the results of the measurement. Theory Y manager believes that, given the right conditions, most people will want to do well at work and that there is a pool of unused creativity in the workforce.
This ensures work stays efficient, productive, and in-line with company standards. A boss can be viewed as taking the theory X approach, while a leader takes the theory Y approach. For example, motivating a middle-class person who has met the first four levels with positive feedback and encouragement will have a greater impact than using the same motivator to affect a minimum wage person from the ghetto who is desperately struggling to meet his or her basic needs. By the 1960s, Abraham Maslow's theories began to dominate research about management. Description of Theory Y Management influenced by this theory assumes that employees are ambitious, self-motivated and anxious to accept greater responsibility and exercise self-control, self-direction, autonomy and empowerment. Bu arastirmada; konaklama isletmeleri yoneticileri ve calisanlarinin diger calisanlari X-Y Teorileri cercevesinde nasil degerlendirdiklerini incelemek amaclanmistir.
Specifically, Maslow felt that motivation ultimately increases performance and productivity. Because the lower level needs are more immediate and urgent, then they come into play as the source and direction of a person's goal if they are not satisfied. Often prescribed universal procedures that are not appropriate in some settings. The researchers, Fritz Roethlisberger and William J. Theory X and Theory Y have to do with the perceptions managers hold of their employees, which then influence their management style.
The results suggest that the older generation, with more experience, were greater risk-takers, and were able to tap into their lifelong experiences, resulting in higher evidence of innovation. One of the greatest challenges that organizational behavior theory and practices face is not relying too heavily on the technology and tools. He theorized that the motivation employees use to reach self-actualization allows them to reach their full potential. Accepting creative and innovative ideas provided by employees. Maslow's Theory of Motivation - Hierarchy of Needs In 1943, Dr.
The hypotheses were tested using linear regressions. Theory X explains the importance of heightened supervision, external rewards, and penalties, while Theory Y highlights the motivating role of and encourages workers to approach tasks without direct. Correlational tests revealed that Theory X assumptions were positively related to the Dominant and Impression Leaving styles. Marcia's changes likely impacted the culture of the organization to one not focused on employee motivation. Unfortunately, theories about human motivation and what drives the employers and their employees to be motivated have not been studied until only recently.
Most importantly, the person making the decision must have the ability to sort through the information and process it correctly. Theory X assumes that employees dislike work, are not ambitious, want to avoid responsibility, dislike change, and are self-centered. Theory Y assumes that higher-order needs dominate individuals. The theory states that employees are more likely to increase productivity and efficiency, if they feel satisfied and validated at work. McGregor felt that companies followed either one of these approaches. The result was Theory Z—a development beyond Theory X and Theory Y that blended the best of Eastern and Western management practices. As a leader, you must understand these needs because they can be powerful motivators.